born in 1946, studied philosophy, linguistics, and biology in Tübingen and Berlin. In 1982, he earned his qualifications (habilitation) as a professor of molecular biology at the FU Berlin. After visiting professorships in Innsbruck and Salzburg, he taught in Lübeck from 1990 to 1994. He later became an Associate Professor in Salzburg. From 1997 to 2014, he served as Director of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin.