is an expert and advisor on European affairs and international relations. She has served as Executive Director for Europe and Eurasia of the Open Society Foundations, the world’s largest foundation for the rule of law and democracy, since 2021. She is also a Special Advisor to the EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs, Josep Borrell. She was director and CEO of the German Council on Foreign Relations from 2016 to 2021, and before that held senior positions at the German Marshall Fund of the United States and the Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik. Schwarzer is an honorary professor at Freie Universität Berlin, a senior fellow at Harvard University, and a member of the supervisory board of BNP Paribas.