born in Paris in 1948, is a novelist and essayist. He studied philosophy at a number of institutions, including the Sorbonne, and earned his doctorate under Roland Barthes. Since 2019, he has been a member of the Académie Goncourt, which annually awards France’s most important literary prize, the Prix Goncourt. His novel »Lunes de fiel« was made into a film under the title »Bitter Moon« by Roman Polanski. In »An Imaginary Racism” (2020), he argues that the term »Islamophobia« stifles any criticism against Islam.